Location:

Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates:

33 50 N, 35 50 E

Map references:

Middle East

Area:

total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline:

225 km

Climate:

Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

Terrain:

narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m

Geography - note:

Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

Population

4,017,095 (July 2009 est.)

Ethnic groups:

Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians

Religions:

Muslim (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian  (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant)
note: 17 religious sects recognized

Languages:

Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian