Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Geographic coordinates:

33 50 N, 35 50 E

Map references:

Middle East


total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km


225 km


Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows


narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qurnat as Sawda' 3,088 m

Geography - note:

Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity


4,017,095 (July 2009 est.)

Ethnic groups:

Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians


Muslim (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian  (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant)
note: 17 religious sects recognized


Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian